Out of Control American Police

Discussion in 'Odds and Ends' started by britbox, Nov 12, 2015.

  1. britbox

    britbox Multiple Major Winner

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    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6GvGAGBkr0M
     
    teddytennisfan likes this.
  2. britbox

    britbox Multiple Major Winner

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    One for you: @asmodeus @teddytennisfan
     
  3. Billie

    Billie Nole fan
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    BB, in this age where everything is being recorded and posted on social media, no wonder we see more and more of these.  My thinking is that there is more good stuff that police officers do than bad ones, it's just that bad things are more popular and posted and talked about than good.  I have never had any problems with authorities.   I always respect them and start off in a courteous manner.  If they want to see my car trunk, I open it for them, ask me questions - I answer, no drama whatsoever.   They are getting people to call cops on them for noise complaint and she screams like she is nuts and he behaves like he is offended that the cop is there yet somebody called him to the site, frankly even I would be pissed off.   All this stuff is not good for society.  Sure there are jerks among cops, who says that they have some jerk-proof test when they apply to the school.  But at the end of the day it is your own responsibility to avoid confrontations with authorities, as much as you can.
     
  4. brokenshoelace

    brokenshoelace Masters Champion

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    Sure, they were making too much noise, but noise is a CIVIL complaint, not criminal. Under no circumstances should the cops go in with that kind of attitude to begin with for such a minor issue. To say this was excessive would be an understatement. Even if we can claim or insinuate that the cops were "provoked," it in no way justifies what happened. I'm not making any reflections on American police in general, but in this instance, this was disgraceful and kind of sickening. It's odd to focus on how the victims acted (yes, those people were victims IMO) when the cops were so much more at fault.
     
  5. Federberg

    Federberg Multiple Major Winner

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    How can America possibly be called the land of the free? While I agree with Billie that the police do vastly more good than bad and it goes unreported. What we are now able to see shows how much bad they get away with. What I find most appalling is the lack of knowledge a lot of these policemen have about the extent of their authority and the basic rule of law. Don't they get training?
     
  6. Billie

    Billie Nole fan
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    I am sorry, somebody who makes their neighbours call cops on them for noise complaints, I have a hard time seeing as victims.   They are disrespectful of others, period.  All that first guy had to do is step out and talk calmly without all this screaming and all could have been avoided.

    I don't know maybe it was the way I was brought up, I've never had problems with authorities and if I have to deal with them I do it with respect towards them, for my safe, if nothing else.   And especially if I sense that he is on the edge.  At the end of the day, these are just humans and they make mistakes and they are jerks just like all of us.   And it can get even worse than this, unfortunately.
     
  7. brokenshoelace

    brokenshoelace Masters Champion

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    You can make too much noise and still be a victim when someone uses excessive and needless force to drag you out of your house, wrestle you to the ground and unjustifiably arrest you. You think making noise justifies that? I disagree. "I've never had problems with authorities" is victim blaming at its best. Yes, you have never had problems with authorities (you're lucky, and I hope it stays that way). But does that mean that every other person who did has himself to blame?

    We don't even know what kind of noise they made and how bad it was.
     
  8. Billie

    Billie Nole fan
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    I agree with you BS, we don't know what preceded all this.  What kind of "noise complaint" it was.  It could have been a boxing match between somebody, a screaming contest, firing a gun, or just playing loud music.  Who knows?   What if it indeed was a domestic violence?  People can call it "noise" but it can be much more serious than that.  We just don't have all the facts.

    I am just cautious, after having to deal with police, soldiers, MP, paramilitary, all kinds of uniforms I didn't even know who they all were.  Unfortunately.
     
  9. I.Haychew

    I.Haychew Junior Member

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    Under Indiana (where I'm a cop) Criminal Law...

    A person who recklessly, knowingly, or intentionally makes unreasonable noise and continues to do so after being asked to stop, commits disorderly conduct, a Class B misdemeanor.

     
     
  10. Billie

    Billie Nole fan
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    Welcome IH!!!!  That makes sense to me. :good:
     
  11. teddytennisfan

    teddytennisfan Multiple Major Winner

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    THE SO-CALLED ''LAW AND ORDER" OF AMERICA IS NOTHING more than the outgrowth of wheer it began.

    lest people NOT understand --

    the POLICE CULTURE of america has NEVER been about ''protecting the ordinary folk - and the public peace".


    not at all.

    the POLICE system of the USA arose from , is rooted in, and continues to be --


    in SERVICE of the USA CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE.

    THEY WERE FIRST started in earnest , formally -- as MERCENARIES -- PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS with guns and muscle -- to ENFORCE laws and bills and ''property rights' which extended to the public sphere --


    SERVING THE CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE who started them , paid their wages, etc....to PACIFY the people to comply with ''law and order" as written by the BUSNESS commiunity and ONLY for their benefit.

    THAT CONTINUES to be the case -- except that they are now MILITARIZED -- ..
    and a law unto themselves...

    =and whatever ''police state" is progessively UNMASKING itself - rather than BECOMING -- but merely unmasking itself..

    is simply a reflection of what AMERICA DOES IN THE WORLD -- turngin the world into one VAST PRISON SYSTEM uinder its NSA, FBI (which now GOES ABROAD contrary to its supposed role for DOMESTIC action ONLY ) - even the NYC POLICE INSERTING itself into affairs of other countries...(these THREE TRIED IT IN RUSSIA -- IN THE SOCHI OLYMPICS -- ) ...

    it is both

    the colming HOME TO ROOST what america has always done to other countries (using THEIR local forces to be the mask to subjugate their populations to america's will) -

    as well as SHOWING WHERE IT ALL BEGAN -- right in america itself as the FASCIST TOTALITARIAN SYSTEM that it ALWAYS has been


    pretending to be 'the land of the free, home of the brave".

    ===========================================================

    MARTINA NAVRATILOVA -- who ''escaped the communist dictatorship so i could pursue my career more freely"/

    soon after 9/11 moved to REGAIN her CZECH citizenship

    (now got it after over a decade of her application) --

    from what she said she saw the ''signs" on the wall...saying , to explan why she was leaving ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;


    "I came to america for freedom -- and did have great usccess as an american citizen....but hat was when i NEVER imagined that i would see the day - when

    the LAND OF THE FREE HOME OF THE BRAVE would become the LAND OF THE FRIGHTENED -- ".
     
  12. teddytennisfan

    teddytennisfan Multiple Major Winner

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    billie -- for you. yugoslavia and serbia make the ''honor list" of place america has brought ''freedom" to..........

    =============================


    ZOLTÁN GROSSMAN

    Faculty member in Geography and Native American Studies, The Evergreen State College

    Lab 1, Room 3012, 2700 Evergreen Pkwy. NW,

    Olympia, WA 98505 USA

    grossmaz@evergreen.edu

    Tel. (360) 867-6153


    Faculty home page

    Writings

    Presentations

    Maps

    Community service

    Favorite stuff

    FROM WOUNDED KNEE TO SYRIA:

    A CENTURY OF U.S. MILITARY INTERVENTIONS

    by Dr. Zoltan Grossman

    The following is a partial list of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to 2014.

    Below the list is a Briefing on the History of U.S. Military Interventions.

    The list and briefing are also available as a powerpoint presentation.

    This guide does not include:

    • mobilizations of the National Guard
    • offshore shows of naval strength
    • reinforcements of embassy personnel
    • the use of non-Defense Department personnel (such as the Drug Enforcement Administration)
    • military exercises
    • non-combat mobilizations (such as replacing postal strikers)
    • the permanent stationing of armed forces
    • covert actions where the U.S. did not play a command and control role
    • the use of small hostage rescue units
    • most uses of proxy troops
    • U.S. piloting of foreign warplanes
    • foreign or domestic disaster assistance
    • military training and advisory programs not involving direct combat
    • civic action programs
    • and many other military activities.
    Among sources used, beside news reports, are the Congressional Record (23 June 1969), 180 Landings by the U.S. Marine Corp History Division, Ege & Makhijani in Counterspy (July-Aug, 1982), "Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993" by Ellen C. Collier of the Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, and Ellsberg in Protest & Survive.

    Versions of this list have been published on Zmag.org, Neravt.com, and numerous other websites.

    Translations of list: Spanish French Turkish Italian Chinese Greek Russian Czech Tamil Portuguese

    Quotes in Christian Science Monitor and The Independent

    Turkish newspaper urges that the United States be listed in Guinness Book of World Records as the Country with the Most Foreign Interventions.

    COUNTRY OR STATE Dates of intervention Forces Comments
    SOUTH DAKOTA
    1890 (-?) Troops 300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.
    ARGENTINA
    1890 Troops Buenos Aires interests protected.
    CHILE
    1891 Troops Marines clash with nationalist rebels.
    HAITI
    1891 Troops Black revolt on Navassa defeated.
    IDAHO
    1892 Troops Army suppresses silver miners' strike.
    HAWAII
    1893 (-?) Naval, troops Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.
    CHICAGO
    1894 Troops Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed.
    NICARAGUA
    1894 Troops Month-long occupation of Bluefields.
    CHINA
    1894-95 Naval, troops Marines land in Sino-Japanese War
    KOREA
    1894-96 Troops Marines kept in Seoul during war.
    PANAMA
    1895 Troops, naval Marines land in Colombian province.
    NICARAGUA
    1896 Troops Marines land in port of Corinto.
    CHINA
    1898-1900 Troops Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.
    PHILIPPINES
    1898-1910 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos
    CUBA
    1898-1902 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base.
    PUERTO RICO
    1898 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, occupation continues.
    GUAM
    1898 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still use as base.
    MINNESOTA
    1898 (-?) Troops Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.
    NICARAGUA
    1898 Troops Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur.
    SAMOA
    1899 (-?) Troops Battle over succession to throne.
    NICARAGUA
    1899 Troops Marines land at port of Bluefields.
    IDAHO
    1899-1901 Troops Army occupies Coeur d'Alene mining region.
    OKLAHOMA
    1901 Troops Army battles Creek Indian revolt.
    PANAMA
    1901-14 Naval, troops Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone; Opened canal 1914.
    HONDURAS
    1903 Troops Marines intervene in revolution.
    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
    1903-04 Troops U.S. interests protected in Revolution.
    KOREA
    1904-05 Troops Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.
    CUBA
    1906-09 Troops Marines land in democratic election.
    NICARAGUA
    1907 Troops "Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up.
    HONDURAS
    1907 Troops Marines land during war with Nicaragua
    PANAMA
    1908 Troops Marines intervene in election contest.
    NICARAGUA
    1910 Troops Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.
    HONDURAS
    1911 Troops U.S. interests protected in civil war.
    CHINA
    1911-41 Naval, troops Continuous occupation with flare-ups.
    CUBA
    1912 Troops U.S. interests protected in civil war.
    PANAMA
    1912 Troops Marines land during heated election.
    HONDURAS
    1912 Troops Marines protect U.S. economic interests.
    NICARAGUA
    1912-33 Troops, bombing 10-year occupation, fought guerillas
    MEXICO
    1913 Naval Americans evacuated during revolution.
    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
    1914 Naval Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.
    COLORADO
    1914 Troops Breaking of miners' strike by Army.
    MEXICO
    1914-18 Naval, troops Series of interventions against nationalists.
    HAITI
    1914-34 Troops, bombing 19-year occupation after revolts.
    TEXAS
    1915 Troops Federal soldiers crush "Plan of San Diego" Mexican-American rebellion
    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
    1916-24 Troops 8-year Marine occupation.
    CUBA
    1917-33 Troops Military occupation, economic protectorate.
    WORLD WAR I
    1917-18 Naval, troops Ships sunk, fought Germany for 1 1/2 years.
    RUSSIA
    1918-22 Naval, troops Five landings to fight Bolsheviks
    PANAMA
    1918-20 Troops "Police duty" during unrest after elections.
    HONDURAS
    1919 Troops Marines land during election campaign.
    YUGOSLAVIA
    1919 Troops/Marines intervene for Italy against Serbs in Dalmatia.
    GUATEMALA
    1920 Troops 2-week intervention against unionists.
    WEST VIRGINIA
    1920-21 Troops, bombing Army intervenes against mineworkers.
    TURKEY
    1922 Troops Fought nationalists in Smyrna.
    CHINA
    1922-27 Naval, troops Deployment during nationalist revolt.
    MEXICO


    HONDURAS

    1923

    1924-25

    Bombing

    Troops

    Airpower defends Calles from rebellion

    Landed twice during election strife.

    PANAMA 1925 Troops Marines suppress general strike.
    CHINA
    1927-34 Troops Marines stationed throughout the country.
    EL SALVADOR
    1932 Naval Warships send during Marti revolt.
    WASHINGTON DC
    1932 Troops Army stops WWI vet bonus protest.
    WORLD WAR II
    1941-45 Naval, troops, bombing, nuclear Hawaii bombed, fought Japan, Italy and Germay for 3 years; first nuclear war.
    DETROIT
    1943 Troops Army put down Black rebellion.
    IRAN
    1946 Nuclear threat Soviet troops told to leave north.
    YUGOSLAVIA
    1946 Nuclear threat, naval Response to shoot-down of US plane.
    URUGUAY
    1947 Nuclear threat Bombers deployed as show of strength.
    GREECE
    1947-49 Command operation U.S. directs extreme-right in civil war.
    GERMANY
    1948 Nuclear Threat Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.
    CHINA
    1948-49 Troops/Marines evacuate Americans before Communist victory.
    PHILIPPINES
    1948-54 Command operation CIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.
    PUERTO RICO
    1950 Command operation Independence rebellion crushed in Ponce.
    KOREA
    1951-53 (-?) Troops, naval, bombing , nuclear threats U.S./So. Korea fights China/No. Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in 1950, and against China in 1953. Still have bases.
    IRAN
    1953 Command Operation CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.
    VIETNAM
    1954 Nuclear threat French offered bombs to use against seige.
    GUATEMALA
    1954 Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat CIA directs exile invasion after new gov't nationalized U.S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.
    EGYPT
    1956 Nuclear threat, troops Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis; Marines evacuate foreigners.
    LEBANON
    l958 Troops, naval Army & Marine occupation against rebels.
    IRAQ
    1958 Nuclear threat Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.
    CHINA
    l958 Nuclear threat China told not to move on Taiwan isles.
    PANAMA
    1958 Troops Flag protests erupt into confrontation.
    VIETNAM
    l960-75 Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats Fought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; one million killed in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in l968 and l969.
    CUBA
    l961 Command operation CIA-directed exile invasion fails.
    GERMANY
    l961 Nuclear threat Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.
    LAOS
    1962 Command operation Military buildup during guerrilla war.
    CUBA l962 Nuclear threat, naval Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with Soviet Union.
    IRAQ 1963 Command operation CIA organizes coup that killed president, brings Ba'ath Party to power, and Saddam Hussein back from exile to be head of the secret service.
    PANAMA
    l964 Troops Panamanians shot for urging canal's return.
    INDONESIA
    l965 Command operation Million killed in CIA-assisted army coup.
    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
    1965-66 Troops, bombing Army & Marines land during election campaign.
    GUATEMALA
    l966-67 Command operation Green Berets intervene against rebels.
    DETROIT
    l967 Troops Army battles African Americans, 43 killed.
    UNITED STATES
    l968 Troops After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.
    CAMBODIA
    l969-75 Bombing, troops, naval Up to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation, and political chaos.
    OMAN
    l970 Command operation U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion.
    LAOS
    l971-73 Command operation, bombing U.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion; "carpet-bombs" countryside.
    SOUTH DAKOTA
    l973 Command operation Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.
    MIDEAST
    1973 Nuclear threat World-wide alert during Mideast War.
    CHILE
    1973 Command operation CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.
    CAMBODIA
    l975 Troops, bombing Gassing of captured ship Mayagüez, 28 troops die when copter shot down.
    ANGOLA
    l976-92 Command operation CIA assists South African-backed rebels.
    IRAN
    l980 Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing Raid to rescue Embassy hostages; 8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution.
    LIBYA
    l981 Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers.
    EL SALVADOR
    l981-92 Command operation, troops Advisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash.
    NICARAGUA
    l981-90 Command operation, naval CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution.
    LEBANON
    l982-84 Naval, bombing, troops Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim positions. 241 Marines killed when Shi'a rebel bombs barracks.
    GRENADA
    l983-84 Troops, bombing Invasion four years after revolution.
    HONDURAS
    l983-89 Troops Maneuvers help build bases near borders.
    IRAN
    l984 Jets Two Iranian jets shot down over Persian Gulf.
    LIBYA
    l986 Bombing, naval Air strikes to topple Qaddafi gov't.
    BOLIVIA
    1986 Troops Army assists raids on cocaine region.
    IRAN
    l987-88 Naval, bombing US intervenes on side of Iraq in war, defending reflagged tankers and shooting down civilian jet.
    LIBYA
    1989 Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down.
    VIRGIN ISLANDS
    1989 Troops St. Croix Black unrest after storm.
    PHILIPPINES
    1989 Jets Air cover provided for government against coup.
    PANAMA
    1989 (-?) Troops, bombing Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed.
    LIBERIA
    1990 Troops Foreigners evacuated during civil war.
    SAUDI ARABIA
    1990-91 Troops, jets Iraq countered after invading Kuwait. 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.
    IRAQ
    1990-91 Bombing, troops, naval Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait; large-scale destruction of Iraqi military.
    KUWAIT
    1991 Naval, bombing, troops Kuwait royal family returned to throne.
    IRAQ
    1991-2003 Bombing, naval No-fly zone over Kurdish north, Shiite south; constant air strikes and naval-enforced economic sanctions
    LOS ANGELES
    1992 Troops Army, Marines deployed against anti-police uprising.
    SOMALIA
    1992-94 Troops, naval, bombing U.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction.
    YUGOSLAVIA
    1992-94 Naval NATO blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.
    BOSNIA
    1993-? Jets, bombing No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs.
    HAITI
    1994 Troops, naval Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup.
    ZAIRE (CONGO)
    1996-97 Troops Troops at Rwandan Hutu refugee camps, in area where Congo revolution begins.
    LIBERIA
    1997 Troops Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.
    ALBANIA
    1997 Troops Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.
    SUDAN
    1998 Missiles Attack on pharmaceutical plant alleged to be "terrorist" nerve gas plant.
    AFGHANISTAN
    1998 Missiles Attack on former CIA training camps used by Islamic fundamentalist groups alleged to have attacked embassies.
    IRAQ
    1998 Bombing, Missiles Four days of intensive air strikes after weapons inspectors allege Iraqi obstructions.
    YUGOSLAVIA
    1999 Bombing, Missiles Heavy NATO air strikes after Serbia declines to withdraw from Kosovo. NATO occupation of Kosovo.
    YEMEN
    2000 Naval USS Cole, docked in Aden, bombed.
    MACEDONIA
    2001 Troops NATO forces deployed to move and disarm Albanian rebels.
    UNITED STATES
    2001 Jets, naval Reaction to hijacker attacks on New York, DC
    AFGHANISTAN
    2001-? Troops, bombing, missiles Massive U.S. mobilization to overthrow Taliban, hunt Al Qaeda fighters, install Karzai regime, and battle Taliban insurgency. More than 30,000 U.S. troops and numerous private security contractors carry our occupation.
    YEMEN
    2002 Missiles Predator drone missile attack on Al Qaeda, including a US citizen.
    PHILIPPINES
    2002-? Troops, naval Training mission for Philippine military fighting Abu Sayyaf rebels evolves into combat missions in Sulu Archipelago, west of Mindanao.
    COLOMBIA
    2003-? Troops US special forces sent to rebel zone to back up Colombian military protecting oil pipeline.
    IRAQ
    2003-11 Troops, naval, bombing, missiles Saddam regime toppled in Baghdad. More than 250,000 U.S. personnel participate in invasion. US and UK forces occupy country and battle Sunni and Shi'ite insurgencies. More than 160,000 troops and numerous private contractors carry out occupation and build large permanent bases.
    LIBERIA
    2003 Troops Brief involvement in peacekeeping force as rebels drove out leader.
    HAITI
    2004-05 Troops, naval Marines & Army land after right-wing rebels oust elected President Aristide, who was advised to leave by Washington.
    PAKISTAN
    2005-? Missiles, bombing, covert operation CIA missile and air strikes and Special Forces raids on alleged Al Qaeda and Taliban refuge villages kill multiple civilians. Drone attacks also on Pakistani Mehsud network.
    SOMALIA
    2006-? Missiles, naval, troops, command operation Special Forces advise Ethiopian invasion that topples Islamist government; AC-130 strikes, Cruise missile attacks and helicopter raids against Islamist rebels; naval blockade against "pirates" and insurgents.
    SYRIA
    2008 Troops Special Forces in helicopter raid 5 miles from Iraq kill 8 Syrian civilians
    YEMEN
    2009-? Missiles, command operation Cruise missile attack on Al Qaeda kills 49 civilians; Yemeni military assaults on rebels
    LIBYA
    2011-? Bombing, missiles, troops, command operation NATO coordinates air strikes and missile attacks against Qaddafi government during uprising by rebel army. Periodic Special Forces raids against Islamist insurgents.
    IRAQ
    2014-? Bombing, missiles, troops, command operation
    Air strikes and Special Forces intervene against Islamic State
    insurgents; training Iraqi and Kurdish troops.

    SYRIA 2014-? Bombing, missiles, troops, command operation
    Air strikes and Special Forces intervene against Islamic State
    insurgents; training other Syrian insurgents.



    (Death toll estimates from 20th-century wars can be found in the Historical Atlas of the 20th Century by alphabetized places index, map series, and major casualties .)



    A BRIEFING ON THE HISTORY

    OF U.S. MILITARY INTERVENTIONS

    By Zoltán Grossman, October 2001

    Published in Z magazine.Translations in Italian Polish

    Since the September 11 attacks on the United States, most people in the world agree that the perpetrators need to be brought to justice, without killing many thousands of civilians in the process. But unfortunately, the U.S. military has always accepted massive civilian deaths as part of the cost of war. The military is now poised to kill thousands of foreign civilians, in order to prove that killing U.S. civilians is wrong.

    The media has told us repeatedly that some Middle Easterners hate the U.S. only because of our "freedom" and "prosperity." Missing from this explanation is the historical context of the U.S. role in the Middle East, and for that matter in the rest of the world. This basic primer is an attempt to brief readers who have not closely followed the history of U.S. foreign or military affairs, and are perhaps unaware of the background of U.S. military interventions abroad, but are concerned about the direction of our country toward a new war in the name of "freedom" and "protecting civilians."

    The United States military has been intervening in other countries for a long time. In 1898, it seized the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico from Spain, and in 1917-18 became embroiled in World War I in Europe. In the first half of the 20th century it repeatedly sent Marines to "protectorates" such as Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. All these interventions directly served corporate interests, and many resulted in massive losses of civilians, rebels, and soldiers. Many of the uses of U.S. combat forces are documented in A History of U.S. Military Interventions since 1890: http://academic.evergreen.edu/g/grossmaz/interventions.html

    U.S. involvement in World War II (1941-45) was sparked by the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, and fear of an Axis invasion of North America. Allied bombers attacked fascist military targets, but also fire-bombed German and Japanese cities such as Dresden and Tokyo, party under the assumption that destroying civilian neighborhoods would weaken the resolve of the survivors and turn them against their regimes. Many historians agree that fire- bombing's effect was precisely the opposite--increasing Axis civilian support for homeland defense, and discouraging potential coup attempts. The atomic bombing of Japan at the end of the war was carried out without any kind of advance demonstration or warning that may have prevented the deaths of hundreds of thousands of innocent civilians.

    The war in Korea (1950-53) was marked by widespread atrocities, both by North Korean/Chinese forces, and South Korean/U.S. forces. U.S. troops fired on civilian refugees headed into South Korea, apparently fearing they were northern infiltrators. Bombers attacked North Korean cities, and the U.S. twice threatened to use nuclear weapons. North Korea is under the same Communist government today as when the war began.

    During the Middle East crisis of 1958, Marines were deployed to quell a rebellion in Lebanon, and Iraq was threatened with nuclear attack if it invaded Kuwait. This little-known crisis helped set U.S. foreign policy on a collision course with Arab nationalists, often in support of the region's monarchies.

    In the early 1960s, the U.S. returned to its pre-World War II interventionary role in the Caribbean, directing the failed 1961 Bay of Pigs exile invasion of Cuba, and the 1965 bombing and Marine invasion of the Dominican Republic during an election campaign. The CIA trained and harbored Cuban exile groups in Miami, which launched terrorist attacks on Cuba, including the 1976 downing of a Cuban civilian jetliner near Barbados. During the Cold War, the CIA would also help to support or install pro-U.S. dictatorships in Iran, Chile, Guatemala, Indonesia, and many other countries around the world.

    The U.S. war in Indochina (1960-75) pit U.S. forces against North Vietnam, and Communist rebels fighting to overthrow pro-U.S. dictatorships in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. U.S. war planners made little or no distinction between attacking civilians and guerrillas in rebel-held zones, and U.S. "carpet-bombing" of the countryside and cities swelled the ranks of the ultimately victorious revolutionaries. Over two million people were killed in the war, including 55,000 U.S. troops. Less than a dozen U.S. citizens were killed on U.S. soil, in National Guard shootings or antiwar bombings. In Cambodia, the bombings drove the Khmer Rouge rebels toward fanatical leaders, who launched a murderous rampage when they took power in 1975.

    Echoes of Vietnam reverberated in Central America during the 1980s, when the Reagan administration strongly backed the pro-U.S. regime in El Salvador, and right-wing exile forces fighting the new leftist Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Rightist death squads slaughtered Salvadoran civilians who questioned the concentration of power and wealth in a few hands. CIA-trained Nicaraguan Contra rebels launched terrorist attacks against civilian clinics and schools run by the Sandinista government, and mined Nicaraguan harbors. U.S. troops also invaded the island nation of Grenada in 1983, to oust a new military regime, attacking Cuban civilian workers (even though Cuba had backed the leftist government deposed in the coup), and accidentally bombing a hospital.

    The U.S. returned in force to the Middle East in 1980, after the Shi'ite Muslim revolution in Iran against Shah Pahlevi's pro-U.S. dictatorship. A troop and bombing raid to free U.S. Embassy hostages held in downtown Tehran had to be aborted in the Iranian desert. After the 1982 Israeli occupation of Lebanon, U.S. Marines were deployed in a neutral "peacekeeping" operation. They instead took the side of Lebanon's pro-Israel Christian government against Muslim rebels, and U.S. Navy ships rained enormous shells on Muslim civilian villages. Embittered Shi'ite Muslim rebels responded with a suicide bomb attack on Marine barracks, and for years seized U.S. hostages in the country. In retaliation, the CIA set off car bombs to assassinate Shi'ite Muslim leaders. Syria and the Muslim rebels emerged victorious in Lebanon.

    Elsewhere in the Middle East, the U.S. launched a 1986 bombing raid on Libya, which it accused of sponsoring a terrorist bombing later tied to Syria. The bombing raid killed civilians, and may have led to the later revenge bombing of a U.S. jet over Scotland. Libya's Arab nationalist leader Muammar Qaddafi remained in power. The U.S. Navy also intervened against Iran during its war against Iraq in 1987-88, sinking Iranian ships and "accidentally" shooting down an Iranian civilian jetliner.

    U.S. forces invaded Panama in 1989 to oust the nationalist regime of Manuel Noriega. The U.S. accused its former ally of allowing drug-running in the country, though the drug trade actually increased after his capture. U.S. bombing raids on Panama City ignited a conflagration in a civilian neighborhood, fed by stove gas tanks. Over 2,000 Panamanians were killed in the invasion to capture one leader.

    The following year, the U.S. deployed forces in the Persian Gulf after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, which turned Washington against its former Iraqi ally Saddam Hussein. U.S. supported the Kuwaiti monarchy and the Muslim fundamentalist monarchy in neighboring Saudi Arabia against the secular nationalist Iraq regime. In January 1991, the U.S..and its allies unleashed a massive bombing assault against Iraqi government and military targets, in an intensity beyond the raids of World War II and Vietnam. Up to 200,000 Iraqis were killed in the war and its imemdiate aftermath of rebellion and disease, including many civilians who died in their villages, neighborhoods, and bomb shelters. The U.S. continued economic sanctions that denied health and energy to Iraqi civilians, who died by the hundreds of thousands, according to United Nations agencies. The U.S. also instituted "no-fly zones" and virtually continuous bombing raids, yet Saddam was politically bolstered as he was militarily weakened.

    In the 1990s, the U.S. military led a series of what it termed "humanitarian interventions" it claimed would safeguard civilians. Foremost among them was the 1992 deployment in the African nation of Somalia, torn by famine and a civil war between clan warlords. Instead of remaining neutral, U.S. forces took the side of one faction against another faction, and bombed a Mogadishu neighborhood. Enraged crowds, backed by foreign Arab mercenaries, killed 18 U.S. soldiers, forcing a withdrawal from the country.

    Other so-called "humanitarian interventions" were centered in the Balkan region of Europe, after the 1992 breakup of the multiethnic federation of Yugoslavia. The U.S. watched for three years as Serb forces killed Muslim civilians in Bosnia, before its launched decisive bombing raids in 1995. Even then, it never intervened to stop atrocities by Croatian forces against Muslim and Serb civilians, because those forces were aided by the U.S. In 1999, the U.S. bombed Serbia to force President Slobodan Milosevic to withdraw forces from the ethnic Albanian province of Kosovo, which was torn a brutal ethnic war. The bombing intensified Serbian expulsions and killings of Albanian civilians from Kosovo, and caused the deaths of thousands of Serbian civilians, even in cities that had voted strongly against Milosevic. When a NATO occupation force enabled Albanians to move back, U.S. forces did little or nothing to prevent similar atrocities against Serb and other non-Albanian civilians. The U.S. was viewed as a biased player, even by the Serbian democratic opposition that overthrew Milosevic the following year.

    Even when the U.S. military had apparently defensive motives, it ended up attacking the wrong targets. After the 1998 bombings of two U.S. embassies in East Africa, the U.S. "retaliated" not only against Osama Bin Laden's training camps in Afghanistan, but a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan that was mistakenly said to be a chemical warfare installation. Bin Laden retaliated by attacking a U.S. Navy ship docked in Yemen in 2000. After the 2001 terror attacks on the United States, the U.S. military is poised to again bomb Afghanistan, and possibly move against other states it accuses of promoting anti-U.S. "terrorism," such as Iraq and Sudan. Such a campaign will certainly ratchet up the cycle of violence, in an escalating series of retaliations that is the hallmark of Middle East conflicts. Afghanistan, like Yugoslavia, is a multiethnic state that could easily break apart in a new catastrophic regional war. Almost certainly more civilians would lose their lives in this tit-for-tat war on "terrorism" than the 3,000 civilians who died on September 11.

    COMMON THEMES

    Some common themes can be seen in many of these U.S. military interventions.

    First, they were explained to the U.S. public as defending the lives and rights of civilian populations. Yet the military tactics employed often left behind massive civilian "collateral damage." War planners made little distinction between rebels and the civilians who lived in rebel zones of control, or between military assets and civilian infrastructure, such as train lines, water plants, agricultural factories, medicine supplies, etc. The U.S. public always believe that in the next war, new military technologies will avoid civilian casualties on the other side. Yet when the inevitable civilian deaths occur, they are always explained away as "accidental" or "unavoidable."

    Second, although nearly all the post-World War II interventions were carried out in the name of "freedom" and "democracy," nearly all of them in fact defended dictatorships controlled by pro-U.S. elites. Whether in Vietnam, Central America, or the Persian Gulf, the U.S. was not defending "freedom" but an ideological agenda (such as defending capitalism) or an economic agenda (such as protecting oil company investments). In the few cases when U.S. military forces toppled a dictatorship--such as in Grenada or Panama--they did so in a way that prevented the country's people from overthrowing their own dictator first, and installing a new democratic government more to their liking.

    Third, the U.S. always attacked violence by its opponents as "terrorism," "atrocities against civilians," or "ethnic cleansing," but minimized or defended the same actions by the U.S. or its allies. If a country has the right to "end" a state that trains or harbors terrorists, would Cuba or Nicaragua have had the right to launch defensive bombing raids on U.S. targets to take out exile terrorists? Washington's double standard maintains that an U.S. ally's action by definition "defensive," but that an enemy's retaliation is by definition "offensive."

    Fourth, the U.S. often portrays itself as a neutral peacekeeper, with nothing but the purest humanitarian motives. After deploying forces in a country, however, it quickly divides the country or region into "friends" and "foes," and takes one side against another. This strategy tends to enflame rather than dampen a war or civil conflict, as shown in the cases of Somalia and Bosnia, and deepens resentment of the U.S. role.

    Fifth, U.S. military intervention is often counterproductive even if one accepts U.S. goals and rationales. Rather than solving the root political or economic roots of the conflict, it tends to polarize factions and further destabilize the country. The same countries tend to reappear again and again on the list of 20th century interventions.

    Sixth, U.S. demonization of an enemy leader, or military action against him, tends to strengthen rather than weaken his hold on power. Take the list of current regimes most singled out for U.S. attack, and put it alongside of the list of regimes that have had the longest hold on power, and you will find they have the same names. Qaddafi, Castro, Saddam, Kim, and others may have faced greater internal criticism if they could not portray themselves as Davids standing up to the American Goliath, and (accurately) blaming many of their countries' internal problems on U.S. economic sanctions.

    One of the most dangerous ideas of the 20th century was that "people like us" could not commit atrocities against civilians.

    • German and Japanese citizens believed it, but their militaries slaughtered millions of people.
    • British and French citizens believed it, but their militaries fought brutal colonial wars in Africa and Asia.
    • Russian citizens believed it, but their armies murdered civilians in Afghanistan, Chechnya, and elsewhere.
    • Israeli citizens believed it, but their army mowed down Palestinians and Lebanese.
    • Arabs believed it, but suicide bombers and hijackers targeted U.S. and Israeli civilians.
    • U.S. citizens believed it, but their military killed hundreds of thousands in Vietnam, Iraq, and elsewhere.
    Every country, every ethnicity, every religion, contains within it the capability for extreme violence. Every group contains a faction that is intolerant of other groups, and actively seeks to exclude or even kill them. War fever tends to encourage the intolerant faction, but the faction only succeeds in its goals if the rest of the group acquiesces or remains silent.

    The attacks of September 11 were not only a test for U.S. citizens attitudes' toward minority ethnic/racial groups in their own country, but a test for our relationship with the rest of the world.

    We must begin not by lashing out at civilians in Muslim countries, but by taking responsibility for our own history and our own actions, and how they have fed the cycle of violence.


    ===========================




    billie -- for you. yugoslavia and serbia make the ''honor list" of place america has brought ''freedom" to..........

    =============================


    ZOLTÁN GROSSMAN

    Faculty member in Geography and Native American Studies, The Evergreen State College

    Lab 1, Room 3012, 2700 Evergreen Pkwy. NW,

    Olympia, WA 98505 USA

    grossmaz@evergreen.edu

    Tel. (360) 867-6153


    Faculty home page

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    FROM WOUNDED KNEE TO SYRIA:

    A CENTURY OF U.S. MILITARY INTERVENTIONS

    by Dr. Zoltan Grossman

    The following is a partial list of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to 2014.

    Below the list is a Briefing on the History of U.S. Military Interventions.

    The list and briefing are also available as a powerpoint presentation.

    This guide does not include:

    • mobilizations of the National Guard
    • offshore shows of naval strength
    • reinforcements of embassy personnel
    • the use of non-Defense Department personnel (such as the Drug Enforcement Administration)
    • military exercises
    • non-combat mobilizations (such as replacing postal strikers)
    • the permanent stationing of armed forces
    • covert actions where the U.S. did not play a command and control role
    • the use of small hostage rescue units
    • most uses of proxy troops
    • U.S. piloting of foreign warplanes
    • foreign or domestic disaster assistance
    • military training and advisory programs not involving direct combat
    • civic action programs
    • and many other military activities.
    Among sources used, beside news reports, are the Congressional Record (23 June 1969), 180 Landings by the U.S. Marine Corp History Division, Ege & Makhijani in Counterspy (July-Aug, 1982), "Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993" by Ellen C. Collier of the Library of Congress Congressional Research Service, and Ellsberg in Protest & Survive.

    Versions of this list have been published on Zmag.org, Neravt.com, and numerous other websites.

    Translations of list: Spanish French Turkish Italian Chinese Greek Russian Czech Tamil Portuguese

    Quotes in Christian Science Monitor and The Independent

    Turkish newspaper urges that the United States be listed in Guinness Book of World Records as the Country with the Most Foreign Interventions.

    COUNTRY OR STATE Dates of intervention Forces Comments
    SOUTH DAKOTA
    1890 (-?) Troops 300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.
    ARGENTINA
    1890 Troops Buenos Aires interests protected.
    CHILE
    1891 Troops Marines clash with nationalist rebels.
    HAITI
    1891 Troops Black revolt on Navassa defeated.
    IDAHO
    1892 Troops Army suppresses silver miners' strike.
    HAWAII
    1893 (-?) Naval, troops Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.
    CHICAGO
    1894 Troops Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed.
    NICARAGUA
    1894 Troops Month-long occupation of Bluefields.
    CHINA
    1894-95 Naval, troops Marines land in Sino-Japanese War
    KOREA
    1894-96 Troops Marines kept in Seoul during war.
    PANAMA
    1895 Troops, naval Marines land in Colombian province.
    NICARAGUA
    1896 Troops Marines land in port of Corinto.
    CHINA
    1898-1900 Troops Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.
    PHILIPPINES
    1898-1910 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos
    CUBA
    1898-1902 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base.
    PUERTO RICO
    1898 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, occupation continues.
    GUAM
    1898 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still use as base.
    MINNESOTA
    1898 (-?) Troops Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.
    NICARAGUA
    1898 Troops Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur.
    SAMOA
    1899 (-?) Troops Battle over succession to throne.
    NICARAGUA
    1899 Troops Marines land at port of Bluefields.
    IDAHO
    1899-1901 Troops Army occupies Coeur d'Alene mining region.
    OKLAHOMA
    1901 Troops Army battles Creek Indian revolt.
    PANAMA
    1901-14 Naval, troops Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone; Opened canal 1914.
    HONDURAS
    1903 Troops Marines intervene in revolution.
    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
    1903-04 Troops U.S. interests protected in Revolution.
    KOREA
    1904-05 Troops Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.
    CUBA
    1906-09 Troops Marines land in democratic election.
    NICARAGUA
    1907 Troops "Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up.
    HONDURAS
    1907 Troops Marines land during war with Nicaragua
    PANAMA
    1908 Troops Marines intervene in election contest.
    NICARAGUA
    1910 Troops Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.
    HONDURAS
    1911 Troops U.S. interests protected in civil war.
    CHINA
    1911-41 Naval, troops Continuous occupation with flare-ups.
    CUBA
    1912 Troops U.S. interests protected in civil war.
    PANAMA
    1912 Troops Marines land during heated election.
    HONDURAS
    1912 Troops Marines protect U.S. economic interests.
    NICARAGUA
    1912-33 Troops, bombing 10-year occupation, fought guerillas
    MEXICO
    1913 Naval Americans evacuated during revolution.
    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
    1914 Naval Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.
    COLORADO
    1914 Troops Breaking of miners' strike by Army.
    MEXICO
    1914-18 Naval, troops Series of interventions against nationalists.
    HAITI
    1914-34 Troops, bombing 19-year occupation after revolts.
    TEXAS
    1915 Troops Federal soldiers crush "Plan of San Diego" Mexican-American rebellion
    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
    1916-24 Troops 8-year Marine occupation.
    CUBA
    1917-33 Troops Military occupation, economic protectorate.
    WORLD WAR I
    1917-18 Naval, troops Ships sunk, fought Germany for 1 1/2 years.
    RUSSIA
    1918-22 Naval, troops Five landings to fight Bolsheviks
    PANAMA
    1918-20 Troops "Police duty" during unrest after elections.
    HONDURAS
    1919 Troops Marines land during election campaign.
    YUGOSLAVIA
    1919 Troops/Marines intervene for Italy against Serbs in Dalmatia.
    GUATEMALA
    1920 Troops 2-week intervention against unionists.
    WEST VIRGINIA
    1920-21 Troops, bombing Army intervenes against mineworkers.
    TURKEY
    1922 Troops Fought nationalists in Smyrna.
    CHINA
    1922-27 Naval, troops Deployment during nationalist revolt.
    MEXICO


    HONDURAS

    1923

    1924-25

    Bombing

    Troops

    Airpower defends Calles from rebellion

    Landed twice during election strife.

    PANAMA 1925 Troops Marines suppress general strike.
    CHINA
    1927-34 Troops Marines stationed throughout the country.
    EL SALVADOR
    1932 Naval Warships send during Marti revolt.
    WASHINGTON DC
    1932 Troops Army stops WWI vet bonus protest.
    WORLD WAR II
    1941-45 Naval, troops, bombing, nuclear Hawaii bombed, fought Japan, Italy and Germay for 3 years; first nuclear war.
    DETROIT
    1943 Troops Army put down Black rebellion.
    IRAN
    1946 Nuclear threat Soviet troops told to leave north.
    YUGOSLAVIA
    1946 Nuclear threat, naval Response to shoot-down of US plane.
    URUGUAY
    1947 Nuclear threat Bombers deployed as show of strength.
    GREECE
    1947-49 Command operation U.S. directs extreme-right in civil war.
    GERMANY
    1948 Nuclear Threat Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.
    CHINA
    1948-49 Troops/Marines evacuate Americans before Communist victory.
    PHILIPPINES
    1948-54 Command operation CIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.
    PUERTO RICO
    1950 Command operation Independence rebellion crushed in Ponce.
    KOREA
    1951-53 (-?) Troops, naval, bombing , nuclear threats U.S./So. Korea fights China/No. Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in 1950, and against China in 1953. Still have bases.
    IRAN
    1953 Command Operation CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.
    VIETNAM
    1954 Nuclear threat French offered bombs to use against seige.
    GUATEMALA
    1954 Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat CIA directs exile invasion after new gov't nationalized U.S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.
    EGYPT
    1956 Nuclear threat, troops Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis; Marines evacuate foreigners.
    LEBANON
    l958 Troops, naval Army & Marine occupation against rebels.
    IRAQ
    1958 Nuclear threat Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.
    CHINA
    l958 Nuclear threat China told not to move on Taiwan isles.
    PANAMA
    1958 Troops Flag protests erupt into confrontation.
    VIETNAM
    l960-75 Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats Fought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; one million killed in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in l968 and l969.
    CUBA
    l961 Command operation CIA-directed exile invasion fails.
    GERMANY
    l961 Nuclear threat Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.
    LAOS
    1962 Command operation Military buildup during guerrilla war.
    CUBA l962 Nuclear threat, naval Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with Soviet Union.
    IRAQ 1963 Command operation CIA organizes coup that killed president, brings Ba'ath Party to power, and Saddam Hussein back from exile to be head of the secret service.
    PANAMA
    l964 Troops Panamanians shot for urging canal's return.
    INDONESIA
    l965 Command operation Million killed in CIA-assisted army coup.
    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
    1965-66 Troops, bombing Army & Marines land during election campaign.
    GUATEMALA
    l966-67 Command operation Green Berets intervene against rebels.
    DETROIT
    l967 Troops Army battles African Americans, 43 killed.
    UNITED STATES
    l968 Troops After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.
    CAMBODIA
    l969-75 Bombing, troops, naval Up to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation, and political chaos.
    OMAN
    l970 Command operation U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion.
    LAOS
    l971-73 Command operation, bombing U.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion; "carpet-bombs" countryside.
    SOUTH DAKOTA
    l973 Command operation Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.
    MIDEAST
    1973 Nuclear threat World-wide alert during Mideast War.
    CHILE
    1973 Command operation CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.
    CAMBODIA
    l975 Troops, bombing Gassing of captured ship Mayagüez, 28 troops die when copter shot down.
    ANGOLA
    l976-92 Command operation CIA assists South African-backed rebels.
    IRAN
    l980 Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing Raid to rescue Embassy hostages; 8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution.
    LIBYA
    l981 Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers.
    EL SALVADOR
    l981-92 Command operation, troops Advisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash.
    NICARAGUA
    l981-90 Command operation, naval CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution.
    LEBANON
    l982-84 Naval, bombing, troops Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim positions. 241 Marines killed when Shi'a rebel bombs barracks.
    GRENADA
    l983-84 Troops, bombing Invasion four years after revolution.
    HONDURAS
    l983-89 Troops Maneuvers help build bases near borders.
    IRAN
    l984 Jets Two Iranian jets shot down over Persian Gulf.
    LIBYA
    l986 Bombing, naval Air strikes to topple Qaddafi gov't.
    BOLIVIA
    1986 Troops Army assists raids on cocaine region.
    IRAN
    l987-88 Naval, bombing US intervenes on side of Iraq in war, defending reflagged tankers and shooting down civilian jet.
    LIBYA
    1989 Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down.
    VIRGIN ISLANDS
    1989 Troops St. Croix Black unrest after storm.
    PHILIPPINES
    1989 Jets Air cover provided for government against coup.
    PANAMA
    1989 (-?) Troops, bombing Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed.
    LIBERIA
    1990 Troops Foreigners evacuated during civil war.
    SAUDI ARABIA
    1990-91 Troops, jets Iraq countered after invading Kuwait. 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.
    IRAQ
    1990-91 Bombing, troops, naval Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait; large-scale destruction of Iraqi military.
    KUWAIT
    1991 Naval, bombing, troops Kuwait royal family returned to throne.
    IRAQ
    1991-2003 Bombing, naval No-fly zone over Kurdish north, Shiite south; constant air strikes and naval-enforced economic sanctions
    LOS ANGELES
    1992 Troops Army, Marines deployed against anti-police uprising.
    SOMALIA
    1992-94 Troops, naval, bombing U.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction.
    YUGOSLAVIA
    1992-94 Naval NATO blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.
    BOSNIA
    1993-? Jets, bombing No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs.
    HAITI
    1994 Troops, naval Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup.
    ZAIRE (CONGO)
    1996-97 Troops Troops at Rwandan Hutu refugee camps, in area where Congo revolution begins.
    LIBERIA
    1997 Troops Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.
    ALBANIA
    1997 Troops Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.
    SUDAN
    1998 Missiles Attack on pharmaceutical plant alleged to be "terrorist" nerve gas plant.
    AFGHANISTAN
    1998 Missiles Attack on former CIA training camps used by Islamic fundamentalist groups alleged to have attacked embassies.
    IRAQ
    1998 Bombing, Missiles Four days of intensive air strikes after weapons inspectors allege Iraqi obstructions.
    YUGOSLAVIA
    1999 Bombing, Missiles Heavy NATO air strikes after Serbia declines to withdraw from Kosovo. NATO occupation of Kosovo.
    YEMEN
    2000 Naval USS Cole, docked in Aden, bombed.
    MACEDONIA
    2001 Troops NATO forces deployed to move and disarm Albanian rebels.
    UNITED STATES
    2001 Jets, naval Reaction to hijacker attacks on New York, DC
    AFGHANISTAN
    2001-? Troops, bombing, missiles Massive U.S. mobilization to overthrow Taliban, hunt Al Qaeda fighters, install Karzai regime, and battle Taliban insurgency. More than 30,000 U.S. troops and numerous private security contractors carry our occupation.
    YEMEN
    2002 Missiles Predator drone missile attack on Al Qaeda, including a US citizen.
    PHILIPPINES
    2002-? Troops, naval Training mission for Philippine military fighting Abu Sayyaf rebels evolves into combat missions in Sulu Archipelago, west of Mindanao.
    COLOMBIA
    2003-? Troops US special forces sent to rebel zone to back up Colombian military protecting oil pipeline.
    IRAQ
    2003-11 Troops, naval, bombing, missiles Saddam regime toppled in Baghdad. More than 250,000 U.S. personnel participate in invasion. US and UK forces occupy country and battle Sunni and Shi'ite insurgencies. More than 160,000 troops and numerous private contractors carry out occupation and build large permanent bases.
    LIBERIA
    2003 Troops Brief involvement in peacekeeping force as rebels drove out leader.
    HAITI
    2004-05 Troops, naval Marines & Army land after right-wing rebels oust elected President Aristide, who was advised to leave by Washington.
    PAKISTAN
    2005-? Missiles, bombing, covert operation CIA missile and air strikes and Special Forces raids on alleged Al Qaeda and Taliban refuge villages kill multiple civilians. Drone attacks also on Pakistani Mehsud network.
    SOMALIA
    2006-? Missiles, naval, troops, command operation Special Forces advise Ethiopian invasion that topples Islamist government; AC-130 strikes, Cruise missile attacks and helicopter raids against Islamist rebels; naval blockade against "pirates" and insurgents.
    SYRIA
    2008 Troops Special Forces in helicopter raid 5 miles from Iraq kill 8 Syrian civilians
    YEMEN
    2009-? Missiles, command operation Cruise missile attack on Al Qaeda kills 49 civilians; Yemeni military assaults on rebels
    LIBYA
    2011-? Bombing, missiles, troops, command operation NATO coordinates air strikes and missile attacks against Qaddafi government during uprising by rebel army. Periodic Special Forces raids against Islamist insurgents.
    IRAQ
    2014-? Bombing, missiles, troops, command operation
    Air strikes and Special Forces intervene against Islamic State
    insurgents; training Iraqi and Kurdish troops.

    SYRIA 2014-? Bombing, missiles, troops, command operation
    Air strikes and Special Forces intervene against Islamic State
    insurgents; training other Syrian insurgents.



    (Death toll estimates from 20th-century wars can be found in the Historical Atlas of the 20th Century by alphabetized places index, map series, and major casualties .)



    A BRIEFING ON THE HISTORY

    OF U.S. MILITARY INTERVENTIONS

    By Zoltán Grossman, October 2001

    Published in Z magazine.Translations in Italian Polish

    Since the September 11 attacks on the United States, most people in the world agree that the perpetrators need to be brought to justice, without killing many thousands of civilians in the process. But unfortunately, the U.S. military has always accepted massive civilian deaths as part of the cost of war. The military is now poised to kill thousands of foreign civilians, in order to prove that killing U.S. civilians is wrong.

    The media has told us repeatedly that some Middle Easterners hate the U.S. only because of our "freedom" and "prosperity." Missing from this explanation is the historical context of the U.S. role in the Middle East, and for that matter in the rest of the world. This basic primer is an attempt to brief readers who have not closely followed the history of U.S. foreign or military affairs, and are perhaps unaware of the background of U.S. military interventions abroad, but are concerned about the direction of our country toward a new war in the name of "freedom" and "protecting civilians."

    The United States military has been intervening in other countries for a long time. In 1898, it seized the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico from Spain, and in 1917-18 became embroiled in World War I in Europe. In the first half of the 20th century it repeatedly sent Marines to "protectorates" such as Nicaragua, Honduras, Panama, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. All these interventions directly served corporate interests, and many resulted in massive losses of civilians, rebels, and soldiers. Many of the uses of U.S. combat forces are documented in A History of U.S. Military Interventions since 1890: http://academic.evergreen.edu/g/grossmaz/interventions.html

    U.S. involvement in World War II (1941-45) was sparked by the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, and fear of an Axis invasion of North America. Allied bombers attacked fascist military targets, but also fire-bombed German and Japanese cities such as Dresden and Tokyo, party under the assumption that destroying civilian neighborhoods would weaken the resolve of the survivors and turn them against their regimes. Many historians agree that fire- bombing's effect was precisely the opposite--increasing Axis civilian support for homeland defense, and discouraging potential coup attempts. The atomic bombing of Japan at the end of the war was carried out without any kind of advance demonstration or warning that may have prevented the deaths of hundreds of thousands of innocent civilians.

    The war in Korea (1950-53) was marked by widespread atrocities, both by North Korean/Chinese forces, and South Korean/U.S. forces. U.S. troops fired on civilian refugees headed into South Korea, apparently fearing they were northern infiltrators. Bombers attacked North Korean cities, and the U.S. twice threatened to use nuclear weapons. North Korea is under the same Communist government today as when the war began.

    During the Middle East crisis of 1958, Marines were deployed to quell a rebellion in Lebanon, and Iraq was threatened with nuclear attack if it invaded Kuwait. This little-known crisis helped set U.S. foreign policy on a collision course with Arab nationalists, often in support of the region's monarchies.

    In the early 1960s, the U.S. returned to its pre-World War II interventionary role in the Caribbean, directing the failed 1961 Bay of Pigs exile invasion of Cuba, and the 1965 bombing and Marine invasion of the Dominican Republic during an election campaign. The CIA trained and harbored Cuban exile groups in Miami, which launched terrorist attacks on Cuba, including the 1976 downing of a Cuban civilian jetliner near Barbados. During the Cold War, the CIA would also help to support or install pro-U.S. dictatorships in Iran, Chile, Guatemala, Indonesia, and many other countries around the world.

    The U.S. war in Indochina (1960-75) pit U.S. forces against North Vietnam, and Communist rebels fighting to overthrow pro-U.S. dictatorships in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. U.S. war planners made little or no distinction between attacking civilians and guerrillas in rebel-held zones, and U.S. "carpet-bombing" of the countryside and cities swelled the ranks of the ultimately victorious revolutionaries. Over two million people were killed in the war, including 55,000 U.S. troops. Less than a dozen U.S. citizens were killed on U.S. soil, in National Guard shootings or antiwar bombings. In Cambodia, the bombings drove the Khmer Rouge rebels toward fanatical leaders, who launched a murderous rampage when they took power in 1975.

    Echoes of Vietnam reverberated in Central America during the 1980s, when the Reagan administration strongly backed the pro-U.S. regime in El Salvador, and right-wing exile forces fighting the new leftist Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Rightist death squads slaughtered Salvadoran civilians who questioned the concentration of power and wealth in a few hands. CIA-trained Nicaraguan Contra rebels launched terrorist attacks against civilian clinics and schools run by the Sandinista government, and mined Nicaraguan harbors. U.S. troops also invaded the island nation of Grenada in 1983, to oust a new military regime, attacking Cuban civilian workers (even though Cuba had backed the leftist government deposed in the coup), and accidentally bombing a hospital.

    The U.S. returned in force to the Middle East in 1980, after the Shi'ite Muslim revolution in Iran against Shah Pahlevi's pro-U.S. dictatorship. A troop and bombing raid to free U.S. Embassy hostages held in downtown Tehran had to be aborted in the Iranian desert. After the 1982 Israeli occupation of Lebanon, U.S. Marines were deployed in a neutral "peacekeeping" operation. They instead took the side of Lebanon's pro-Israel Christian government against Muslim rebels, and U.S. Navy ships rained enormous shells on Muslim civilian villages. Embittered Shi'ite Muslim rebels responded with a suicide bomb attack on Marine barracks, and for years seized U.S. hostages in the country. In retaliation, the CIA set off car bombs to assassinate Shi'ite Muslim leaders. Syria and the Muslim rebels emerged victorious in Lebanon.

    Elsewhere in the Middle East, the U.S. launched a 1986 bombing raid on Libya, which it accused of sponsoring a terrorist bombing later tied to Syria. The bombing raid killed civilians, and may have led to the later revenge bombing of a U.S. jet over Scotland. Libya's Arab nationalist leader Muammar Qaddafi remained in power. The U.S. Navy also intervened against Iran during its war against Iraq in 1987-88, sinking Iranian ships and "accidentally" shooting down an Iranian civilian jetliner.

    U.S. forces invaded Panama in 1989 to oust the nationalist regime of Manuel Noriega. The U.S. accused its former ally of allowing drug-running in the country, though the drug trade actually increased after his capture. U.S. bombing raids on Panama City ignited a conflagration in a civilian neighborhood, fed by stove gas tanks. Over 2,000 Panamanians were killed in the invasion to capture one leader.

    The following year, the U.S. deployed forces in the Persian Gulf after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, which turned Washington against its former Iraqi ally Saddam Hussein. U.S. supported the Kuwaiti monarchy and the Muslim fundamentalist monarchy in neighboring Saudi Arabia against the secular nationalist Iraq regime. In January 1991, the U.S..and its allies unleashed a massive bombing assault against Iraqi government and military targets, in an intensity beyond the raids of World War II and Vietnam. Up to 200,000 Iraqis were killed in the war and its imemdiate aftermath of rebellion and disease, including many civilians who died in their villages, neighborhoods, and bomb shelters. The U.S. continued economic sanctions that denied health and energy to Iraqi civilians, who died by the hundreds of thousands, according to United Nations agencies. The U.S. also instituted "no-fly zones" and virtually continuous bombing raids, yet Saddam was politically bolstered as he was militarily weakened.

    In the 1990s, the U.S. military led a series of what it termed "humanitarian interventions" it claimed would safeguard civilians. Foremost among them was the 1992 deployment in the African nation of Somalia, torn by famine and a civil war between clan warlords. Instead of remaining neutral, U.S. forces took the side of one faction against another faction, and bombed a Mogadishu neighborhood. Enraged crowds, backed by foreign Arab mercenaries, killed 18 U.S. soldiers, forcing a withdrawal from the country.

    Other so-called "humanitarian interventions" were centered in the Balkan region of Europe, after the 1992 breakup of the multiethnic federation of Yugoslavia. The U.S. watched for three years as Serb forces killed Muslim civilians in Bosnia, before its launched decisive bombing raids in 1995. Even then, it never intervened to stop atrocities by Croatian forces against Muslim and Serb civilians, because those forces were aided by the U.S. In 1999, the U.S. bombed Serbia to force President Slobodan Milosevic to withdraw forces from the ethnic Albanian province of Kosovo, which was torn a brutal ethnic war. The bombing intensified Serbian expulsions and killings of Albanian civilians from Kosovo, and caused the deaths of thousands of Serbian civilians, even in cities that had voted strongly against Milosevic. When a NATO occupation force enabled Albanians to move back, U.S. forces did little or nothing to prevent similar atrocities against Serb and other non-Albanian civilians. The U.S. was viewed as a biased player, even by the Serbian democratic opposition that overthrew Milosevic the following year.

    Even when the U.S. military had apparently defensive motives, it ended up attacking the wrong targets. After the 1998 bombings of two U.S. embassies in East Africa, the U.S. "retaliated" not only against Osama Bin Laden's training camps in Afghanistan, but a pharmaceutical plant in Sudan that was mistakenly said to be a chemical warfare installation. Bin Laden retaliated by attacking a U.S. Navy ship docked in Yemen in 2000. After the 2001 terror attacks on the United States, the U.S. military is poised to again bomb Afghanistan, and possibly move against other states it accuses of promoting anti-U.S. "terrorism," such as Iraq and Sudan. Such a campaign will certainly ratchet up the cycle of violence, in an escalating series of retaliations that is the hallmark of Middle East conflicts. Afghanistan, like Yugoslavia, is a multiethnic state that could easily break apart in a new catastrophic regional war. Almost certainly more civilians would lose their lives in this tit-for-tat war on "terrorism" than the 3,000 civilians who died on September 11.

    COMMON THEMES

    Some common themes can be seen in many of these U.S. military interventions.

    First, they were explained to the U.S. public as defending the lives and rights of civilian populations. Yet the military tactics employed often left behind massive civilian "collateral damage." War planners made little distinction between rebels and the civilians who lived in rebel zones of control, or between military assets and civilian infrastructure, such as train lines, water plants, agricultural factories, medicine supplies, etc. The U.S. public always believe that in the next war, new military technologies will avoid civilian casualties on the other side. Yet when the inevitable civilian deaths occur, they are always explained away as "accidental" or "unavoidable."

    Second, although nearly all the post-World War II interventions were carried out in the name of "freedom" and "democracy," nearly all of them in fact defended dictatorships controlled by pro-U.S. elites. Whether in Vietnam, Central America, or the Persian Gulf, the U.S. was not defending "freedom" but an ideological agenda (such as defending capitalism) or an economic agenda (such as protecting oil company investments). In the few cases when U.S. military forces toppled a dictatorship--such as in Grenada or Panama--they did so in a way that prevented the country's people from overthrowing their own dictator first, and installing a new democratic government more to their liking.

    Third, the U.S. always attacked violence by its opponents as "terrorism," "atrocities against civilians," or "ethnic cleansing," but minimized or defended the same actions by the U.S. or its allies. If a country has the right to "end" a state that trains or harbors terrorists, would Cuba or Nicaragua have had the right to launch defensive bombing raids on U.S. targets to take out exile terrorists? Washington's double standard maintains that an U.S. ally's action by definition "defensive," but that an enemy's retaliation is by definition "offensive."

    Fourth, the U.S. often portrays itself as a neutral peacekeeper, with nothing but the purest humanitarian motives. After deploying forces in a country, however, it quickly divides the country or region into "friends" and "foes," and takes one side against another. This strategy tends to enflame rather than dampen a war or civil conflict, as shown in the cases of Somalia and Bosnia, and deepens resentment of the U.S. role.

    Fifth, U.S. military intervention is often counterproductive even if one accepts U.S. goals and rationales. Rather than solving the root political or economic roots of the conflict, it tends to polarize factions and further destabilize the country. The same countries tend to reappear again and again on the list of 20th century interventions.

    Sixth, U.S. demonization of an enemy leader, or military action against him, tends to strengthen rather than weaken his hold on power. Take the list of current regimes most singled out for U.S. attack, and put it alongside of the list of regimes that have had the longest hold on power, and you will find they have the same names. Qaddafi, Castro, Saddam, Kim, and others may have faced greater internal criticism if they could not portray themselves as Davids standing up to the American Goliath, and (accurately) blaming many of their countries' internal problems on U.S. economic sanctions.

    One of the most dangerous ideas of the 20th century was that "people like us" could not commit atrocities against civilians.

    • German and Japanese citizens believed it, but their militaries slaughtered millions of people.
    • British and French citizens believed it, but their militaries fought brutal colonial wars in Africa and Asia.
    • Russian citizens believed it, but their armies murdered civilians in Afghanistan, Chechnya, and elsewhere.
    • Israeli citizens believed it, but their army mowed down Palestinians and Lebanese.
    • Arabs believed it, but suicide bombers and hijackers targeted U.S. and Israeli civilians.
    • U.S. citizens believed it, but their military killed hundreds of thousands in Vietnam, Iraq, and elsewhere.
    Every country, every ethnicity, every religion, contains within it the capability for extreme violence. Every group contains a faction that is intolerant of other groups, and actively seeks to exclude or even kill them. War fever tends to encourage the intolerant faction, but the faction only succeeds in its goals if the rest of the group acquiesces or remains silent.

    The attacks of September 11 were not only a test for U.S. citizens attitudes' toward minority ethnic/racial groups in their own country, but a test for our relationship with the rest of the world.

    We must begin not by lashing out at civilians in Muslim countries, but by taking responsibility for our own history and our own actions, and how they have fed the cycle of violence.


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  13. teddytennisfan

    teddytennisfan Multiple Major Winner

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    the title ''OUT OF CONTROL POLICE IN AMERICA\|"


    really is just a subset -- but also a symbol


    of what the PROPER COMPLETE TITLE OUGHT TO BE


    THE OUT OF CONTROL ROGUE AMERICAN STATE IN THE WORLD".
     
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